Dr Trozzi: The Glycocalyx is a complex coating of all human cells. It is especially developed and important on the epithelial cells lining of airways and the endothelial cells lining our blood vessels.
Both the glycocalyx and an important molecule within it called heparin sulfate, are very dependent on sulfation. A well sulfated glycocalyx keeps viruses out of the cells because of its physical barrier, as well as its negative charge which repels coronaviruses and other pathogens.
A sulfate depleted and thus degraded glycocalyx is ineffective at protecting cells, and gives the virus easier access to infect the cells.